For the cause of building socialism, industrialization has the role of creating conditions and a material and technical premise for the socialist regime. In each historical period and in each socio-economic context, industrialization has a specific content and implementation path. For Vietnam in the past, it was the process of socialist industrialization and from the end of the twentieth century until now, this process is fully defined as industrialization and modernization.
This is a comprehensive and extensive economic, technical, technological and socio-economic process aimed at transforming Vietnam’s production and society from backward agricultural to industrial technology is increasingly advanced, modern and civilized.
On the basis of summarizing the industrialization and modernization from the early 1990s of the twentieth century up to now and closely following the context, requirements and new tasks, the XIII Congress of the Party proposed the policy: “Continue continuously promote industrialization and modernization on the basis of scientific and technological progress and innovation “.
So far, human history has witnessed four industrial revolutions, also scientific and technical revolutions in general. The first one, at the end of the eighteenth century, gave birth to the mechanical industry, mass production lines, commodity production, market economy … The second, at the end of the nineteenth century, birth of an electrified industry and society; to set the stage for capitalism to move from free competition to imperial monopoly. The third, in the mid 70s of the twentieth century, ushered in the era of electronicization and computerization. The fourth, from the beginning of the twenty-first century, marks a turning point for the digital transformation of the entire physical and spiritual life of man. Each revolution creates an increasingly modern level of technology for the long-term industrialization of mankind.
Experts around the world have generalized four levels of industrialization from low to high. Assemblement is the lowest level. It is followed by the Own Engineering Manufacturing (OEM) level. Own Design Manufacturing (ODM) level is higher than that. Own Brand Manufacturing (OBM) is the highest level of production with its own brand name.
In order to progress to an increasingly high level of industrialization, each country is required to have some basic industrial sectors, without which it is impossible to develop other industries. The metallurgical, mechanical, manufacturing, energy, chemical … industries are the foundations for other industries that have conditions and premise for construction and development. In fact, many countries have not devoted strategic attention to these industries. The direct consequence is that national industrial production basically stops at the assembly level and supporting industries cannot develop, the national industry is increasingly inferior to industrial establishments. FDI. Facing this situation, the document of the XIII Congress identified: “Building a strong national industry … focusing on the development of foundation industries, especially the mechanical industry, manufacturing, supporting industries” .
In today’s world, the industrialization process of each country cannot be conducted in isolation, but must be placed in the global production – business chain. For Vietnam, this requirement becomes more urgent because our economy is deeply integrated with the world economy: The total export and import turnover is equal to 160% to 200% of GDP among the countries. last year. In a great sense, the process of industrialization and modernization in our country is also the process of economic restructuring according to competitive advantages; ensuring national economic autonomy through technological innovation, improving labor productivity and production – business efficiency. To guide this important transition, the XIII Congress document states: “Restructuring the industry, improving the level of technology, accelerating the transition to digital technology …, improving the autonomy of the industry. ownership of the economy, capable of participating deeply and effectively in global value chains “.
The developed industrialized countries and newly industrialized countries have all succeeded on the path of industrialization by knowing in time the industrialization model suitable to the world context and specific conditions of the country. . From the middle of the twentieth century up to now, there have been two very successful industrialization models. The import substitution model turned the countries of Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile into Latin American “tigers”. After that, the export-oriented model brought miraculous development to the East Asian “tigers”: Singapore, Korea, Hong Kong (China) and Taiwan (China). By the early 1990s of the twentieth century, Vietnam accelerated industrialization and modernization under the motto of export, and at the same time replaced imports in advantageous fields and commodities. This process has contributed to bringing the country great achievements, of historical significance; However, as the document of the XIII Congress reviewed: “Creating a foundation for our country to basically become an industrial country in the direction of modernization has not achieved the set target”.
Considering the scale of global trade, the world today has been transformed into a unified and unified market by free trade agreements, especially the new generation agreements. There, there has been and will quickly lose the distinction between domestic and international markets. In such a new context, the above models of industrialization obviously have no place. Vietnam, like other countries, needs to define a new model of industrialization, both adapting to the global value chain, the fourth industrial revolution … and in accordance with the conditions, goals, requirement … of the home country. The 10-year socio-economic development strategy (2021 – 2030) passed at the XIII Congress clearly states the model of industrialization and modernization in the new era: “Continue to promote industrialization and modernization. Based on the foundation of science, technology, innovation and technological achievements of the 4th Industrial Revolution … Promote the development of a number of key economic sectors and fields. capabilities, advantages and large room to be the driving force for growth in the spirit of catching up, advancing together and surpassing in some areas compared to the region and the world “.
Some key industries, new technologies and high technologies are identified as development priorities, including: Information and communication technology, electronics – telecommunications industry, robot manufacturing industry. automotive, equipment with integrated automatic operation, remote control, software industry, digital products, information safety industry, pharmaceutical industry, bio-product manufacturing, public environmental industry, clean energy industry, renewable energy, smart energy, processing industry, manufacturing industry for agriculture and new materials …
In general, with a strategic vision, closely following the industrial production and industrial economy of the modern world, the XIII Congress of the Party has inherited and supplemented, developed the policy, the policy to continue. to step up the country’s industrialization and modernization from now to the middle of the twenty-first century. This is the top important basis for the Government and all levels and sectors to formulate specific, timely and effective policies to achieve the country’s goal of having a modern-oriented industry by 2025. modern industry by 2030.
Associate Professor, Dr. Nguyen Viet Thao
(Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics)
According to People’s Newspaper